By Slawomir Koziel
This short stories a couple of ideas exploiting the surrogate-based optimization suggestion and variable-fidelity EM simulations for effective optimization of antenna buildings. The creation of every procedure is illustrated with examples of antenna layout. The authors reveal the ways that practitioners can receive an optimized antenna layout on the computational fee such as a number of high-fidelity EM simulations of the antenna constitution. there's additionally a dialogue of the choice of antenna version constancy and its impression on functionality of the surrogate-based layout procedure. This quantity is acceptable for electric engineers in academia in addition to undefined, antenna designers and engineers facing computationally-expensive layout problems.
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Additional resources for Antenna Design by Simulation-Driven Optimization
The new designs at which we evaluate the high-fidelity model are referred to as infill points (Forrester and Keane 2009) and selection of the infill points is also known as adaptive sampling (Forrester and Keane 2009). For most SBO methods discussed in this book, infill points are selected through local optimization of the surrogate. This is usually justified because the initial design is assumed to be reasonably good (in practice, it is obtained through local or global optimization of the low-fidelity model).
19) 4 Methodologies for Variable-Fidelity Optimization of Antenna Structures 38 low-fidelity model rotated/translated lowfidelity model high-f idelity model fine model Rf (x*) = S* Rc(x*) Rf (x*) Rc(xc*) y y Fig. 9 Illustration of the manifold-mapping model alignment for a least-squares optimization problem. The point xc* denotes the minimizer corresponding to the coarse model response, and the point y is the vector of design specifications. Thin solid and dashed straight lines denote the tangent planes for the fine and coarse model response at their optimal designs, respectively.
5 Low-Fidelity Antenna Models 50 u5 u4 v1 v2 v3 u9 u8 w1 u7 w4 u6 u3 w1 u2 w3 w1 w2 w1 u1 GND Fig. 5 Planar Yagi antenna. Substrate is shown semitransparent Simplification of physics of the models can be the following: (a) Ignoring dielectric and metal losses as well as material dispersion if their impact to the simulated response is not significant. (b) Setting metallization thickness to zero for traces, strips, and patches. (c) Ignoring moderate anisotropy of substrates. (d) Energizing the antenna with discrete sources rather than waveguide ports (HFSS 2010, CST Microwave Studio 2013, and FEKO 2011 and Taflove and Hagness 2006).