By Teresa P. R. Caldeira
Teresa Caldeira's pioneering research of worry, crime, and segregation in S?o Paulo poses crucial questions on citizenship and concrete switch in modern democratic societies. concentrating on S?o Paulo, and utilizing comparative info on la, she identifies new styles of segregation constructing in those towns and means that those styles are showing in lots of metropolises.
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27 Moreover, Lopes (1993) shows that 68 percent of the urban households below the indigent line had either a black or a pardo head of household, while black or pardo households represented only 41 percent of all urban households. The other change in Brazilian society during the 1980s was political de~ocr~tization. The end of the 1970S and the early 1980s were marked by a slgmfIcant expansion of political citizenship and rights. Starting in the mid- Ordering the World 1970s, the working classes, especially in Sao Paulo, began to organize a series of political activities that substantially affected politics and the dominant authoritarian rule.
Their interviews were so persuasive that further interpretation is superfluous. greedy, all rich, all these rich people are greedy. In order to have just a little something it's necessary to be greedy.... Do you think that today a person who works their whole life has a chance of moving up socially? A: I think that someone who works their whole life doesn't have a chance of going up socially. e: Before it was possible; today it's not. Before when? e: Ten, twenty years ago.
6 percent of the active economic population, according to the PNAD. They worked mostly in the service sector (around 70 percent), and their average income was only 55·3 percent that of men. Although women are slightly more educated than men, their incomes are consistently lower than men's in all occupational categories and at all educational levels (PNAD 96). Lopes shows (1993) that the effects of the economic crisis were worse for households headed by women. This type of household has increased considerably in the last years: in 19 60, 10·7 percent of the total number of households were headed by women; by 1989, that number was 20 percent (Goldani 1994:3 09-10).