By Fei Yuan
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Additional info for CMOS current-mode circuits for data communications
Cascode implemented in the positive transconductors improves the quality factor by lowering Rs from Rs = 9 ml ,r^9m2 to Rs = --^— I TT^zr- I and increasing Rr. p = - ^ on the quality factor remains significant. p, however, can be offset by connecting a negative resistor of resistance Rp = —Rp in parallel with Rp such that the overall parallel resistance is infinite. 34 [78, 79]. 34(b), the impedance at low frequencies is given by Z^— (-^ + - ^ j . To maximize the frequency range over which a constant negative resistance exists, the transconductors synthesizing negative resistors should be configured as simple as possible.
To achieve a low input impedance, a large output impedance, and at the same time to keep the supply voltage low, bootstrapped current amplifiers were proposed in . 7(a). The auxiliary amplifier is employed to enable the input and output voltages to track each other. In addition, it lowers the input impedance and boosts the output impedance. 7(b). 17) shows that the output impedance of the bootstrapped current amplifier is comparable to that of the regulated cascode current amplifier. It should be noted that J2 must also be bootstrap-configured in order to have a large output impedance.
This is because in order to have a large output impedance, the biasing current source J2 in 19 Output Impedance Boosting Techniques the output branch of the regulated and multi-regulated cetscode current amplifiers must also be cascode-configured. 4 was proposed in . 4- Pseudo-cascode current amplifiers. Note that in this case, J2 does not need to be implemented in cascode. The minimum supply voltage of the output branch is only Vr + Vsat- It can be shown that the output impedance of the pseudo-cascode current amplifiers is given by 2^0^(5^7713^03)^02- The added common-gate stage has no negative effect on the bandwidth.