By Eileen K. Allen, Lynn Marotz
This 3rd version booklet bargains a finished, but concise, consultant to the improvement of young ones. mom and dad, caregivers, and educators alike will locate this booklet attention-grabbing and informative. This e-book covers the actual, cognitive, and affective improvement of youngsters from prebirth via age 8. Developmental milestones are defined in a nontechnical type that gives easy wisdom, informing readers of what they could count on and the way they could offer acceptable studying reviews at each one degree of improvement.
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Extra info for Developmental Profiles: Pre-Birth to Eight
CHAPTER 2 21 Habituation. cific in both gross motor and fine motor activities. In the refinement of a gross motor skill, for example, a two-year-old may attempt to throw a ball but achieves little distance or control; the same child, within a few short years, may pitch a ball over home plate with speed and accuracy. As for a fine motor skill, compare the self-feeding efforts of a toddler with an eight-year-old who is motivated (for whatever reason) to display good table manners! Perceptual development refers to the increasingly complex use the child makes of information received through the senses: sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste, and body position.
DAILY ROUTINES—ONE TO FOUR MONTHS Eating • Takes five to eight feedings, each 5 to 6 ounces per day. • Begins fussing before anticipated feeding times; does not always cry to signal the need to eat. • Needs only a little assistance in getting nipple to mouth; beginning to help by using own hands to guide nipple. continued CHAPTER 4 51 • Sucks vigorously; may choke on occasion because of the vigor and enthusiasm of sucking. • Becomes impatient if bottle or breast continues to be offered once hunger is satisfied.
Raises up on arms. Motor Development • Reflexive motor behaviors are changing: —Tonic neck and stepping reflexes disappear. —Rooting and sucking reflexes are well developed. —Swallowing reflex and tongue movements are still immature; continued drooling and inability to move food to the back of the mouth. —Grasp reflex gradually disappears. —Landau reflex appears near the middle of this period; when baby is held in a prone (face down) position, the head is held upright and legs are fully extended.