Economy and Nature in the Fourteenth Century: Money, Market by Joel Kaye

By Joel Kaye

Highbrow advancements pioneered through scholastic normal philosophers of the fourteenth century constituted a serious degree within the emergence of clinical idea. underneath those technical advancements lay a profound reconceptualization of nature. the aim of this publication is to research the elements of this reconceptualization, and to invest at the impacts that formed it. It argues that the transformation of the conceptual version of the flora and fauna c. 1260-1380 was once strongly encouraged via the swift monetization of eu society throughout the related interval.

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States that anyone who has not turned in his old coins after a certain date and is found exchanging them will have all his money seized and his body put at the king’s disposal. ³¹ Fournial, Histoire mone´taire, . Ordonnances, vol. ³³ Scenes such as these, often violent, profoundly unsettling, and turning on the growing power of money and commercial interests in society, surrounded the students and masters in Paris from the beginning of the century. The bold innovations in measurement and quantification found in the writings of these masters evolved in the context of a society being transformed by the social reality of monetization.

Merton College, the birthplace of the proto-science ⁷⁷ For a discussion of the ‘‘market value’’ of an academic degree in an English university, see William Courtenay, Schools and Scholars in Fourteenth-Century England (Princeton, ), –. See also R. N. Swanson, ‘‘Learning and Livings: University Study and Clerical Careers in Later Medieval England,’’ History of Universities  (), –; Jean Dunbabin, ‘‘Meeting the Costs of University Education in Northern France c. –,’’ History of Universities  (), –.

Aston, ‘‘The External Administration and Resources of Merton College to c. ,’’ –; Jean Dunbabin, ‘‘Careers and Vocations,’’ –. ⁸² Aston, ‘‘Administration of Merton,’’ –: ‘‘here we can see a body of fellows, for much of the period the most distinguished intellectual group of the whole university, coping with practical problems, ensuring their own support while at the same time accumulating the monies needed for most grandiose building projects, and (we may think) joining together .

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