By Glenn O. Mallory, Juan B. Hajdu
This ebook describes the chemical rules of the main electroless methods and the sensible functions of those innovations within the undefined. due to the coordinated efforts of 26 person authors - this e-book fills the void which has existed for an entire reference on electroless deposition.
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Additional info for Electroless Plating
G. Linka and W. Riedel, Galvanotechnik, 77(3), 568 (1987). 41. N. R. Amadio, Plating, 56,1246 (1969). 42. D. C. A. , New York, NY, 1965; p. 171. O. Mallory In the previous chapter, the components of electroless nickel plating baths were discussed from the viewpoint of the function each performs in the bath, with little attention paid to their effect on the plating process. The metal and the electron source (the reducing agent) are consumed in the electroless plating reaction and so their concentrations in the bath are continuously decreasing.
Hence, it appears that lead is only loosely adsorbed onto the catalyst, but its diffusion in the double layer adjacent to the catalytic surface has a profound effect on bath stability. , Eqs. 23 and 26 were seen to represent competing reactions. -m . L 0 Q, ii Fig. 15-Effect of KIO, concentration on the anodic polarization curves. A = 0 ppm KlO, B = 50 ppm; C = 100 ppm; D = 400 ppm. the hydrolyzed Ni+*speciescan desorb from the catalytic surface into the double layer, forming colloidal particles.
It is obvious that the activity of a free nickel ion decreases as the number of ligand molecules bound to the nickel ion approaches m; m = 6 for monodentate ligands, m = 3 for bidentate ligands, and so forth. The rate of nickel deposition is proportional to the rate at which the nickel complex dissociates to form free nickel ion. , the larger the stability constant, the lower the rate of complex dissociation and concomitantly, the lower the rate of deposition. 2) for the nickel-citrate complex is more than an order of magnitude greater than the stability constant for the nickel-lactate complex; and as predicted, the plating rate in the citrate bath is considerably slower than the plating rate in the lactate bath under similar conditions.