Electromagnetic Fields in Biological Systems by James C. Lin

By James C. Lin

As instant expertise turns into extra refined and available to extra clients, the interactions of electromagnetic fields with organic platforms have captured the curiosity not just of the clinical group but in addition most of the people. accidental or deleterious organic results of electromagnetic fields and radiation may perhaps point out grounds for health and wellbeing and protection precautions of their use. Spanning static fields to terahertz waves, Electromagnetic Fields in organic platforms explores the diversity of effects those fields have at the human physique. With contributions by means of an array of specialists, subject matters mentioned comprise: crucial interactions and box coupling phenomena, highlighting their value in learn on organic results and in clinical, commercial, and clinical functions electrical box interactions in cells, targeting ultrashort, pulsed high-intensity fields The impact of publicity to evidently happening and human-made static, low-frequency, and pulsed magnetic fields in organic platforms Dosimetry or coupling of super low frequency (ELF) fields into organic platforms and the ancient advancements and up to date traits in numerical dosimetry cellular conversation units and the dosimetry or coupling of radiofrequency (RF) radiation into the human physique publicity and dosimetry linked to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy to be had facts at the interplay of terahertz radiation with organic tissues, cells, organelles, and molecules there's nice power for communique, business, medical, and scientific use of electromagnetic fields and radiation. to aid increase wisdom of the organic results of such fields and to use their capability clinical functions, this booklet highlights severe concerns in terms of their results on dwelling platforms.

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Also, E θ and Hϕ are in time phase and at right angles to each other. Thus, the electric and magnetic fields in the far field of a dipole are related in the same fashion as in a plane wave. 38) Clearly, energy flow in the far zone is real and uniquely defined. It is outgoing in the radial direction and perpendicular to both E θ and Hϕ. The electromagnetic energy is hence radiated, and the term radiation zone is synonymous with far field. In the far field, the intensity of radiated energy (power density) decreases as 1/r2 with increase in distance.

There are many advantages to numerical modeling in SAR determination. These include a more realistic representation of the human anatomy and the telephone as well as the device’s position relative to the user. The ability to vary these parameters to examine the dosimetric interaction of RF radiation from cellular telephone operation with the entire human body or its parts such as the head and the hand is also important (Lin and Gandhi 1996; Lin and Bernardi 2007). Regarding the aforementioned aspect, the most widely applied numerical method is the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm.

5 ½λ Reference Cleveland and Athey (1989) Anderson and Joyner (1995) Balzano, Garay, and Manning (1995) Kuster and Balzano (1992) Source: Lin, J. C. 2000. Mechanisms of field coupling into biological systems at ELF and RF frequencies. In Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems. vol. 3, ed. J. C. Lin, 1–38. New York: Kluwer/ Plenum. 28 Electromagnetic Fields in Biological Systems To standardize SAR measurements for compliance testing of cell phones against applicable exposure guidelines and to minimize variability in measured results, a specific anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) is proposed for laboratory settings (IEEE Standard 1528; IEEE 2003).

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