By B. D. CULLITY
Read or Download Elements of X-Ray Diffraction . A Volume in Addison-Wesley Series in Metallurgy and Materials. PDF
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Extra info for Elements of X-Ray Diffraction . A Volume in Addison-Wesley Series in Metallurgy and Materials.
2-5. Extension of lattice points through space by the unit cell vectors a, b, c. THE GEOMETRY OF CRYSTALS 34 The [CHAP. 2 a nonprimitive unit cell can be extended through space by repeated applications of the unit-cell vectors a, b, c just like those of a primitive cell. We may regard the lattice points associated with a unit lattice points in cell as being translated one by one or as a group. In either case, equivby one of the vectors alent lattice points in adjacent unit cells are separated a, b, c, wherever these points happen to be located in the cell (Fig.
Radiation hazard is due to the fact that x-rays can kill human tis- sue; in fact, it is precisely this property which is utilized in x-ray therapy for the killing of cancer cells. The biological effects of x-rays include burns (due to localized high-intensity beams), radiation sickness (due to radiation received generally by the whole body), and, at a lower level of radiaThe burns are painful and may be tion intensity, genetic mutations. not impossible, to heal. Slight exposures to x-rays are not cumulative, but above a certain level called the "tolerance dose," they do have a cumulative effect and can produce permanent injury.
Thus a cub has se ir -ral planes of symmetry, one of which is shown in Fig. 2-6(a). There are in all four macroscopic* symmetry operations or elements: A body has n-fold reflection, rotation, inversion, and rotation-inversion. symmetry about an axis if a rotation of 360 /n brings it into Thus a cube has a 4-fold rotation axis normal to each a 3-fold axis face, along each body diagonal, and 2-fold axes joining the centers of opposite edgesf Some of these are shown in Fig. 2-6 (b) where rotational self-coincidence.