By Felix Bronner (Editor), Mary C. Farach-Carson (Editor), Antonios G. Mikos (Editor)
This is often the third quantity in a sequence of reports founded at the unmarried significant subject of bone substitute, discussing the biology of stem cells and cellphone signs, the information had to make stem cell-engineered bone tissue a truth, and the way to avoid bone allograft an infection. important as a followup to its predecessors, and as a stand-alone reference, it's going to curiosity a vast viewers from orthopedists and bioengineers to dentists.
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Additional resources for Engineering of Functional Skeletal Tissues (Topics in Bone Biology, 3)
This indicates that VEGFR1 has a role in monocyte migration . Because osteoblasts express both VEGF receptors and neuropilin 1 , the decrease in osteoblasts at the growth plates in anti-VEGF-treated mice reﬂects an impairment of VEGFR or neuropilin signaling. This in turn has impaired recruitment and/or differentiation of these cell types. Thus, VEGF contributes importantly not only to angiogenesis, but also to osteogenesis. In mice lacking the VEGF gene, the long bones demonstrate a disturbed vascular pattern at birth, consistent with reduced bone growth .
The intracellular effects of FGFs are mediated by two signaling pathways: the mitogenactivated protein kinase/ERK kinase 1 (MEK1) pathway and the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAKSTAT) pathway [152, 165, 182]. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway mediates the ability of FGF signaling to inhibit chondrocyte proliferation and enhances hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis, whereas the MEK1 pathway mediates FGF inhibition of hypertrophic differentiation. A number of studies have examined whether FGF has utility in promoting bone formation.
The TNF family members with the most homogeneity are TNF-α, TNF-β (LT-α), and LT-β. Both TNF-α ligands and TNF-β (LT-α) are homotrimers, whereas LT-β is a heterotrimer of (LT-α)1(LT-β)2. There are three receptors in this family: TNFR1/p55/death receptor 1/ DR1, TNFR2 (p75), and LT-β receptor. Both TNF ligands bind both TNF receptors, but LTβ/TNF-α trimers only bind to the LT receptor. FasL is a unique family member and is solely recognized by its receptor, FAS/Apo1/DR2 . Most cells express TNF-α and its receptors, but the expression of TNF-β and its receptor appears to be restricted to T cells and natural killer cells.