By Zhancang Wang
This booklet provides whole advent, conception, and layout issues on envelope monitoring for instant communications.
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Unlike the GaAs HBT process, deep submicron CMOS technologies use a chemical polishing to planarize the surface of the wafer at various manufacturing steps [38, 39]. The substrate in a CMOS technology is a semiconductor material with electrical conductivity that depends on the substrate doping level. In an epitaxial CMOS technology, a high-conductivity epitaxial layer is grown on top of the substrate. The GaAs substrate used in an HBT technology is semi-insulating, and hence, conductivity is quite low compared to a silicon substrate.
A parameter often reported when comparing transistors for RF applications is the cutoff frequency fT. The cutoff frequency is defined as the frequency in which the current gain of the transistor is extrapolated to fall to unity when the device is terminated with a small-signal short circuit. The cutoff frequency is a function of the bias current of a device. In recent decades, CMOS gate lengths are shrunk and gate oxides have become much thinner. These advances are clearly the significantly increased fT and fmax of the silicon-based technologies to the point that their performance now rivals that of GaAs devices.
With this kind of structure, the second efficiency peak moves to a 9-dB back-off position to tolerate signals with higher PAPR. However, the region between the two efficiency peaks will suffer from more severe efficiency drooping down issue. 27, with a ratio of 1:3 and 12 dB back-off. 28, and more complex memory effects. 26 The efficiency curve comparison among uneven Doherty, even Doherty, and classAB/B PAs. 27 The principle and schematic diagram of uneven Doherty PA with 9 dB back-off peak efficiency point.