Euro Katalog 2008 (Standardkatalog der Euro-Münzen) by Peter Proksch

By Peter Proksch

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7. 1). If particles have been fully destabilised, so that a - 1, then a particle approaching an aggregate will stick on first contact, leading to rather open structures with low fractal dimension. In the literature this is often called diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), since most work on fractal aggregates has been for the perikinetic case. 8. For lower colloid stability, a particle makes several contacts before adhering, so that it is more likely that some degree of penetration into the aggregate interior will occur.

In the literature this is often called diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), since most work on fractal aggregates has been for the perikinetic case. 8. For lower colloid stability, a particle makes several contacts before adhering, so that it is more likely that some degree of penetration into the aggregate interior will occur. 1111]. In water treatment, flocculation by applied fluid shear is much more important and this tends to give aggregates (flocs) of rather higher dF than the diffusion-controlled case.

Thus, the transition from stable panicles to aggregates or flocs involves two steps: destabilisation and collisions. These are illustrated schematically in Fig. 1. In this Chapter, we shall be mainly concerned with the collision process; in particular with the collision frequency and the nature of the aggregates formed. 2. Collision frequency and aggregation rate A suspension may contain many types of particles at different concentrations. If we consider just two types of particle i and j, with number concentrations Ni and/Vs, then the frequency of i-j collisions is governed by a second-order rate equation: Jij = koNiNj (1) In this expression, J0 is the number of collisions occurring between i and j particles in unit time and unit volume of suspension and k o.

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