From Africa to Brazil: Culture, Identity, and an Atlantic by Walter Hawthorne

By Walter Hawthorne

From Africa to Brazil strains the flows of enslaved Africans from identifiable issues within the extensive sector of Africa referred to as higher Guinea to Amazonia, Brazil. those areas, notwithstanding separated by means of an ocean, have been made one via a slave course. Walter Hawthorne considers why planters in Amazonia sought after African slaves, why and the way these despatched to Amazonia have been enslaved, and what their heart Passage adventure used to be like. The e-book is additionally serious about how Africans in diaspora formed exertions regimes, decided the character in their kin lives, and crafted non secular ideals that have been just like these that they had identified ahead of enslavement. This examine makes numerous wide contributions. It offers the single book-length exam of African slavery in Amazonia and identifies with precision the destinations in Africa from the place participants of a giant diaspora within the Americas hailed. From Africa to Brazil additionally proposes new instructions for scholarship inquisitive about how immigrant teams created new or recreated outdated cultures.

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Additional resources for From Africa to Brazil: Culture, Identity, and an Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600-1830

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Celso Furtado, Formação econômico do Brasil (São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional, 2001), 89–90. From Indian to African Slaves 27 ousted French settlers, who had established themselves in 1612, from Maranhão Island and began settling Portuguese in their place. Not long after claiming the island, the Portuguese put effort into setting up farms in the Mearim and Itapecurú River Valleys, which stretched tens of miles south, the rivers feeding into the São Marcos and São José Bays. Abundant rain and tropical heat made the valleys ideal for crop production.

Ibid. José Almada Pereira, Cultura do arroz no Brasil, subsídios para a sua história (Teresina: Embrapa, 2002), 66. BNP, códice 585, l. 326. Sue A. Gross, “Labor in Amazonia in the First Half of the Eighteenth Century,” The Americas 32, 2 (1975), 220. Viveiros, História, 63. Sweet, “Rich Realm,” 111. From Indian to African Slaves 31 As will be seen, that change came in 1755 with the recognition of the legitimacy of white–Indian marriages. Until then, the state and the Church discouraged white–Indian sex, and mamelucos, who were the products of white–Indian sexual encounters, were not counted in censuses.

Paul E. Lovejoy, “The African Diaspora: Revisionist Interpretations of Ethnicity, Introduction 13 Frazier and Stanley M. 27 Frazier’s and Elkins’s ideas gave rise to waves of scholarship taking a variety of approaches. 28 A second group of scholars built on the work of Sidney W. Mintz and Richard Price, who famously argued in an essay focused on the Caribbean that the slave trade served to randomize Africans shipped to that region. That is, African slaves on Caribbean plantations were not, they said, from one cultural group but were thrown together into multicultural “crowds” in which no one culture dominated.

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