Frontier nomads of Iran: a political and social history of by Richard Tapper

By Richard Tapper

In keeping with 3 a long time of ethnographic fieldwork and documentary study, this publication strains the political and social historical past of the Shahsevan, one of many significant nomadic peoples of Iran. it's a dramatic tale, recounting the legendary origins of the tribes, their unification as a confederacy and their eventual decline. In its synthesis of anthropology and background, the e-book will make a huge contribution to the learn of the center East and critical Asia, and likewise to present debates on tribe-state relatives and the connection among id and heritage.

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Page xv A NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION I have been concerned mainly with ease of reading and some closeness to spoken Azarbaijani Turkish and Persian. The full range of English vowels is used to convey those in Persian words and names, though long and short 'a' are not differentiated except in the Glossary below. For Shahsevan Turkish, I have not attempted an accurate or consistent representation in either proper names or vernacular terms. g. in 'Qizilbash'), pronounced as in spoken English 'the' before consonants, but the upper-case version remains undistinguished from that of 'i'.

04-dc2196-47890 CIP ISBN 0 521 58336 5 hardback Page v CONTENTS List of Illustrations viii Preface x Acknowledgments xiii Note on Transliteration xv Glossary xvi 1 Writing Tribal History 1 Anthropology, History and 'Tribes' 1 'Tribe' in Anthropology and the Middle East 5 The Tribes of Iran: Classifications and Comparisons 10 Historians and the Tribes: the Problem of Extrapolation 18 The Shahsevan 24 A Note on Sources 27 Part I The Safavid State and the Origins of the Shahsevan 35 2 'Shahsevani': Safavid Tribal Policy and Practice 39 Background: Azarbaijan and the Early Safavids 39 The Qizilbash Tribes 43 Shahsevani: Safavid Military and Tribal Policies 47 Malcolm's Version 51 3 Shahsevan Traditions 58 The 'Noble' Tribes: Nineteenth-Century Traditions 58 Later 'Noble' Traditions 62 Traditions of the Other Tribes 67 4 Moghan and Ardabil in Safavid Times 72 The Tribal and Nomadic Population of the Region 73 Shahsevan Nomads in Moghan 84 Part II The Rise of the Shahsevan Confederacy 93 5 Badr Khan Sari-Khan-Beyli 95 Arabil and Moghan under Russian and Ottoman Occupation 95 Nader Shah in Ardabil and Moghan 103 Page vi 6 Nazar 'Ali Khan Shahsevan of Ardabil 111 The Khanates of Azarbaijan after Nader Shah 111 Qara-Dagh and Kazem Khan 113 Qara-Bagh and Panah Khan 114 Qobbeh and Fath 'Ali Khan 115 Ardabil, Moghan and the Shahsevan 115 Sarab and the Shaqaqi 117 The Rise of the Qajars 118 Gilan and Hedayatollah Khan 119 Agha Mohammad Qajar in Transcaucasia 120 The Shaqaqi Debacle 123 The Successors of Nazar 'Ali Khan Shahsevan 124 7 The Shahsevan Tribal Confederacy 129 Organization of the Early Shahsevan 129 Formation of the Shahsevan Confederacy 137 Consolidation and Fission of the Confederacy 140 Part III The Shahsevan Tribes in the Great Game 147 8 The Russian Wars and the Loss of Moghan 149 The Russian Conquest of Eastern Transcaucasia 149 The First Russo-Iranian War 152 The Second Russo-Iranian War 159 The Aftermath of the Wars 166 9 The Shahsevan Nomads in the Mid-nineteenth Century 169 Economic Conditions in the Region 169 Pastoral Economy and Society 174 The Shahsevan Chiefs 179 Shahsevan Tribal Organization 186 10 Nomads and Commissars in Moghan 190 The Troubles Begin 190 An Attempt at Settlement 195 The Russians Increase the Pressure 204 The Closure of the Frontier 209 Part IV The End of the Tribal Confederacy 217 11 Pastures New: the Effects of the Frontier Closure 221 Azarbaijan at the End of the Nineteenth Century 221 Pastures and Production 224 Markets 232 Settlement 234 Changes in Shahsevan Tribal Organization 237 Banditry 242 12 The Shahsevan, the Constitution, the Great War and After 248 Azarbaijan and the Tribes Up to the Constitutional Revolution 248 Page vii The Belasovar Affair 252 The Tribal Union and the Sack of Ardabil 254 Yeprem Khan's Defeat of the Shahsevan 259 Shahsevan Versus Cossacks: the 1912 Campaign 262 The Shahsevan Euring the Great War 269 Inter-Tribal Relations in the Time of the Khans 273 The Rise of Reza Khan: the End of the Shahsevan Revolt 278 13 Settlement and Detribalization 283 Reza Shah and the Tribes 283 The First Years of Peace among the Shahsevan 284 Compulsory Settlement 288 After Reza Shah: Soviet Occupation and the Democrats, 1941-6 294 Developments from 1946 to 1966 298 The Twilight of the Chiefs 302 Postscript: 1966-95 309 14 Conclusion: Shahsevan Identity and History 315 On Ethnicity and Identity 315 The Shahsevan Confederacy: Contested Origins and Political Change 317 From Royalists to Bandits 318 From Tribalism to Feudalism 327 From Patriotism to Pastoralism 330 The Shahsevan Tribes: Cultural Identity and Historical Continuity 334 Concluding Remarks: Tribes and States 343 Appendices 1 The Shahsevan of Kharaqan and Khamseh 349 2 Lists and Histories of Shahsevan Tribes 356 3 Some Shahsevan Voices 375 Bibliography 389 Index of Topics 412 Index of Places, Peoples, Persons, Dynasties, Parties, Companies 417 Index of Authors Quoted or Discussed 425 Index of Tribal Names 427 Page viii ILLUSTRATIONS Plates Between pages 146 and 147 All photographs by the Author, unless Otherwise Stated.

3 This has often involved interpretations justified by reference to current social theories, as well as more imaginative historical writing which leans heavily on extrapolation from fieldwork-based ethnographies. Extrapolation in history or anthropology is a form of comparative method which involves extracting insights and often elements from the analysis of one society, and applying these to another society where the same detailed information is not available. Anthropologists need not go so far as either Evans-Pritchard, who held social anthropology to be 'a special kind of historiography', or Radcliffe-Brown, who advocated comparison as the 'methodological equivalent of experiment'; but they must acknowledge that both anthropology and history are inherently comparative.

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