By United Nations
This book offers guidance on getting ready plans for the effective use of water in residential, municipal and advertisement sectors. It includes vital details for constructing water-use potency plans, comparing their expense effectiveness, assessing present and destiny water calls for, and financing water-use potency programmes. The advisor is a priceless source for selection makers inquisitive about the making plans, funding and administration of water offer and the sanitation region.
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This e-book presents directions on getting ready plans for the effective use of water in residential, municipal and advertisement sectors. It includes vital info for constructing water-use potency plans, comparing their fee effectiveness, assessing present and destiny water calls for, and financing water-use potency programmes.
Additional resources for Guide to Preparing Urban Water Use Efficiency Plans issue 83
Traditional performance indicators, such as the commonly used term “unaccounted-for water” (UAW), often give conflicting perceptions of the true success in controlling water losses. With this problem in mind, the International Water Association (IWA) has developed and published a well-defined water audit methodology and an array of rational performance indicators. uk>. Influences on real water losses • The number of service connections; • The location of the customer meter on the service connection; • The length of the mains; • The average operating pressure, when the system is pressurized; • The percentage of time per year for which the system is pressurized; • Infrastructure condition, materials, frequencies of leaks and burst pipes; • The type of soil and ground conditions, in so far as they influence the proportion of pipe leaks and bursts that show quickly on the surface.
2 litres per flush; this standard for commercial toilets took effect on 1 January 1997. (b) Available devices and appliances Available water efficient fittings and fixtures (together with other devices) have been researched and evaluated for cost, possible water efficiency value and legal status if appropriate. Sources of information on devices and appliances include: (a) the Handbook of Water Use and Conservation by A. Vickers, published in 2001; (b) the Memorandum of Understanding published by the California Urban Water Conservation Council in 2002, which contains a list of best management practices; and (c) BMP Cost and Savings Study by T.
Derived with adequate consideration to price responsiveness in the upper tiers, if applicable. Most utilities use a 10-20 per cent rate difference between the two blocks, which simply serves as a reminder that using larger amounts of water has the added impact of higher charges. The reason for the nominal rate difference is that the higher the second tier rate, the lower the first tier rate must be, if revenue neutrality is to be achieved and maintained. When the first tier is set at a very affordable rate and the second tier is a rate applied to, say, 80 per cent or more of the total volume billed (expected revenue), there is no effective efficiency incentive.