By Filip Tavernier, Michiel Steyaert
This publication describes the layout of optical receivers that use the main reasonably-priced integration know-how, whereas permitting functionality that's commonly simply present in very pricey units. to accomplish this, all important performance, from gentle detection to electronic output, is built-in on a unmarried piece of silicon. All construction blocks are completely mentioned, together with photodiodes, transimpedance amplifiers, equalizers and submit amplifiers.
- Provides an intensive clarification of all appropriate points of receivers and optical receivers;
- Describes all key construction blocks of an optical receiver and their layout trade-offs;
- Introduces new layout options for each construction block which will enhance its performance;
- Illustrates all thoughts and formulation with broad examples and figures;
- contains a number of actual, state of the art chip implementations
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Extra info for High-Speed Optical Receivers with Integrated Photodiode in Nanoscale CMOS
12) The relation between the extinction ratio and the power penalty is presented in Fig. 8. The higher the extinction ratio, the more efficient the power is used because a smaller portion of the total power is used to bias the laser diode. 10 9 power penalty [dB] 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Fig. 1 23 Optical Fiber Silica Fiber An optical fiber is used to guide the modulated light from the transmitter to the receiver. In Fig. 9, the typical structure of an optical fiber is shown. Three layers can be distinguished: core, cladding and jacket.
Light with a wavelength in between the infrared and ultraviolet region is visible light. 24 2 Optical Communication—A High-Level Perspective Fig. 10 Typical loss spectrum of silica fiber 6 loss [dB/km] 5 absorption loss peaks 4 3 2 1 scattering loss 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 λ [nm] 1/λ4 [Raz03]. 5 μm. As will be discussed in Chap. 3, it is impossible to use a wavelength longer than 1 μm when the photodiode is integrated in silicon. Generally, because fiber loss increases linearly with the length of the fiber, it limits the distance between the transmitter and the receiver.
Part of the generated light is able to escape through a hole in the upper reflector. The wavelength of the generated light of commercially available VCSELs is generally around 850 nm, which is short in comparison with other available types of lasers. They are mostly used for short communication links. Electrically, a laser diode can be considered as a forward biased semiconductor diode. The relationship between the current through the laser, Ilaser , and its optical output power is represented in Fig.