By Colin Marsden
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Additional resources for HST: The Second Millennium
Second, the arrival of supporting technologies (for example containers) enables intermodalism. Third, the rising congestion in major US freight corridors, characterized by poor intermodal cooperation, is yet another stimulus to intermodal development. The objective of this chapter is to describe the origin, development and prospects of intermodalism in the US. 2 traces the origin and evolution of intermodalism in the US, describing the interplay of broader forces of economic evolution, technological changes, institutional and organizational developments and the speciﬁc conditions of the US transport system and its adaptation.
Many suggestions for new intermodal transshipment technologies have been presented (for overviews and evaluations, see Ballis and Golias 2002; Bontekoning and Kreutzberger 1999; Woxenius 1997), but very few have been commercially implemented. Most new technologies aim at either small-scale and low-cost operations or large-scale, automated and fast applications. For the mid-range terminals, say 50 000–200 000 transshipments a year, conventional technologies are suﬃcient for the current use with transshipments during some hours in the morning and in the late afternoon.
4. In addition to these physical resources, operations clearly depend on a large number of skilled employees, organizational know-how, brands, developed procedures and legal agreements as well as permissions and train slots from authorities. Road and rail infrastructure is needed to accomplish EIT, but as this is supplied by government in exchange for user charges and shared with passenger and other freight operations, it is not treated as a resource. About 100 of the 2000 European intermodal terminals correspond to 90 per cent of the total freight volumes (Nelldal et al.