By Tadjbakhsh Chen
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Extra info for Human Security: Conceps and Implication (Routledge Advances in International Relations and Global Politics Series)
They could evolve into a virtuous or a vicious spiral of interlinkages and consequences. Threats to human security are, thus, no longer just personal, local or national; they are global. Drugs, disease, terrorism, pollution, poverty and environmental problems respect no national borders. Their consequences travel the world, leading to inter-connectivity and inter-dependence among states and international systems on the one hand, and mutual vulnerability among communities on the other. Political communities are not only affected by the activities of other territorial states, but also by other local communities and individuals.
His/ her security is the ultimate goal, to which all instruments and peripheral actors are subordinated. Elevating the person as the ultimate end is made possible by defining this new actor in terms of his/her vulnerabilities on the one hand, and his/her capacity to affect change on the other. 14 Concepts Security from what? Because it concentrates on the well-being and dignity of individuals, another added value of the human security approach is that it recognizes menaces beyond violence to include a host of other threats.
Through the Ottawa Process, Canada focused on gaining recognition for its handling of postconflict situations as peacekeepers – an area in which it had already established a reputation. For Norway, international power lies above all in the promotion of powerful ideas (Suhrke, 1999). Thus, in essence, the differing focuses of Japan’s and Canada’s human security policies reflect different histories and attempts to capitalize on already-existing strengths and capabilities. Japan: freedom from want In December 1998, in the context of the ‘Intellectual Dialogue on Building Asia’s Tomorrow’, Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi launched the Japanese programme on human security, citing it as a foreign policy based on ‘comprehensively seizing all the menaces that threaten the survival, daily life and dignity of human beings and strengthening efforts to confront threats’.