By Esche C., Shurin M.R., Lotze M.T.
The practical high-affinity IL-12 receptor consists of at the least ♀-type receptor subunits, every one independently showing a low affinity for IL-12. either subunits are contributors of the cytokine receptor superfamily. IL-12 p40 interacts essentially with IL-12 R♀1, whereas IL-12 p35 interacts basically with the signal-transducing ♀2 subunit. IL-12 signaling contains activation of the receptor-associated tyrosine kinases JAK2 and TYK2 and downstream tyrosine phosphorylation of the transcription components STAT3 and STAT4 (the imperative sign transducer of IL-12). The IL-12R is expressed totally on activated T andNK cells. Expression of the ♀2 subunit determines TH1 improvement because the ♀2 part is selectively downregulated on TH2 cells. Inhibiting IL-12 responsiveness represents an experimental treatment for TH1-driven inflammatory and autoimmune illnesses.
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Power must be delivered in relatively small quantities at a low (120 to 250 volt) voltage level. The average customer has a total demand equal to only 1/10,000 or 1/100,000 of the output of a large generator. An economical T&D system builds upon these concepts. It must "pick up" power at a few, large sites (generating plants) and deliver it to many, many more small sites (customers). It must somehow achieve economy by using high voltage, but only when power flow can be arranged so that large quantities are moved simultaneously along a common path (line).
Voltage Regulation Voltage regulation equipment includes line regulators and line drop compensators, as well as tap changing transformers. These devices vary their turns ratio (ratio of voltage in to voltage out) to react to variations in voltage drop - if voltage drops, they raise the voltage; if voltage rises, they reduce it to compensate. Properly used, they can help maintain voltage fluctuation on the system within acceptable limits, but they can only reduce the range of fluctuation, not eliminate it altogether.
Total capacity increases as one heads toward the customer because of noncoincidence of peak load (which will be discussed in Chapter 3) and for reliability purposes. 5 This greater-capacity-at-every-lower-level characteristic is a deliberate design feature of most power systems, and required both for reliability reasons and to accommodate coincidence of load, which will be discussed in Chapter 3. Power Delivery Systems 11 15 Ten-year Service Interruption Statistics by Level of Cause io E > — Oo Generation Trans.