By Eric Vittoz
Electronic oscillators utilizing an electromechanical equipment as a frequency reference are irreplaceable parts of systems-on-chip for time-keeping, provider frequency new release and electronic clock new release. With their first-class frequency balance and intensely huge caliber issue Q, quartz crystal resonators were the dominant resolution for greater than 70 years. yet new chances are actually provided by way of micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) resonators, that experience a qualitatively exact identical electric circuit.
Low-Power Crystal and MEMS Oscillators concentrates at the research and layout of an important schemes of built-in oscillator circuits. It explains how those circuits may be optimized through top exploiting the very excessive Q of the resonator to accomplish the minimal energy intake appropriate with the necessities on frequency balance and section noise. the writer has forty years of expertise in designing very low-power, high-performance quartz oscillators for watches and different battery operated platforms and has gathered many of the fabric in this interval. a few extra unique fabric regarding section noise has been additional. the reasons are in general supported by means of analytical advancements, while laptop simulation is proscribed to numerical examples. the most half is devoted to crucial Pierce circuit, with an entire layout method illustrated through examples. Symmetrical circuits that grew to become well known for contemporary telecommunication structures are analyzed in a final chapter.
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Additional resources for Low-power crystal and MEMS oscillators: The experience of watch developments
Fundamental frequencies as high as 250 MHz can then be reached. Harmonic frequencies (overtones) may be used, but their coupling Cm /C12 is always smaller than that for the fundamental. 1 Basic Generic Structure Very small resonators can be fabricated by be using the modern etching techniques that have been developed by the microelectronics industry. For compatibility with integrated circuits, these micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) resonators can be made of polysilicon glass, of aluminum or of silicon itself.
24), Em and Pm can be calculated as soon as |Im | is known. 5 Various Types of Quartz Resonators Quartz is monocrystal of SiO2 that has an hexagonal structure with 3 main axes, as illustrated in Fig. 6 . The optical axis Z passes through the apex of the crystal. The electrical axis X is a set of three axes perpendicular to Z 16 2 Quartz and MEM Resonators that pass through the corners of the crystal. The mechanical axis Y is a set of three axes that are perpendicular to Z and to the faces of the crystal.
13). The maximum inductive (normalized) impedance (positive imaginary value) is M/2 − 1 and occurs at Qp = (M − 1)/2. The maximum resistive component of the (normalized) impedance is M and occurs at Qp = M/2. Notice that the circular locus is no longer valid for p → ±∞, since ω is no longer constant. The minimum module of the impedance (min) occurs for a slightly negative value of Qp. The maximum module (max) is larger by M (diameter of the circle). A small value of M was chosen in Fig. 3 in order to make the various points on the circle visible.