By Statistical Office of the European Commu
Read or Download Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data (Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities) PDF
Best algorithms and data structures books
The up to date re-creation of the vintage creation to Algorithms is meant basically to be used in undergraduate or graduate classes in algorithms or info buildings. just like the first variation, this article is also used for self-study by way of technical execs because it discusses engineering matters in set of rules layout in addition to the mathematical facets.
Ivanyi A. (ed. ) Algorithms of informatics, vol. 2. . functions (2007)(ISBN 9638759623)
Real-time platforms play a very important function in our society, helping a number of very important software components, similar to nuclear and chemical plant keep watch over, flight keep watch over platforms, site visitors keep an eye on in airports, harbors, and teach stations, telecommunication platforms, commercial automation, robotics, protective army platforms, house missions, and so forth.
Additional info for Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data (Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities)
Providing on-site rather than remote management contact points for outsourced services is an example of an improvement in service quality. 162. Design is an integral part of the development and implementation of product innovations. However, design changes that do not involve a significant change in a product’s functional characteristics or intended uses are not product innovations. However, they can be marketing innovations, as 48 ISBN 92-64-01308-3 – © OECD/EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 2005 OSLO MANUAL: GUIDELINES FOR COLLECTING AND INTERPRETING INNOVATION DATA discussed below.
New marketing methods in product promotion involve the use of new concepts for promoting a firm’s goods and services. For example, the first use of a significantly different media or technique – such as product placement in movies or television programmes, or the use of celebrity endorsements – is a marketing innovation. Another example is branding, such as the development and introduction of a fundamentally new brand symbol (as distinguished from a regular update of the brand’s appearance) which is intended to position the firm’s product on a new market or give the product a new image.
Some information can be obtained through innovation surveys in terms of the importance of market-related factors (both positive and negative) on innovation activity. 7. 1. Human resources 141. Much innovation knowledge is embodied in people and their skills, and appropriate skills are needed to make intelligent use of external sources or codified knowledge. The role of human capital in innovation is important at both the firm and the aggregate level. Some issues of interest here are the quality of the education system and how well it matches the needs of innovative firms and other organisations; what efforts firms make to invest in the human capital of their employees; whether innovation activity is hampered by shortages of qualified personnel; whether there are sufficient opportunities for worker training; and how adaptive the workforce is in terms of the structure of the labour market and mobility across regions and sectors.