By H. Lee Willis
Delivering greater than two times the content material of the unique version, this new version is the optimal resource at the choice, improvement, and provision of secure, top quality, and economical electrical software distribution platforms, and it grants sizeable advancements in process reliability and structure by way of spanning each element of procedure making plans together with load forecasting, scheduling, functionality, and economics. Responding to the evolving wishes of electrical utilities, energy Distribution making plans Reference e-book provides an abundance of real-world examples, procedural and managerial matters, and engineering and analytical methodologies which are an important to effective and more advantageous method functionality.
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Extra resources for Power Distribution Planning Reference Book, Second Edition (Power Engineering, 23)
Power must be delivered in relatively small quantities at a low (120 to 250 volt) voltage level. The average customer has a total demand equal to only 1/10,000 or 1/100,000 of the output of a large generator. An economical T&D system builds upon these concepts. It must "pick up" power at a few, large sites (generating plants) and deliver it to many, many more small sites (customers). It must somehow achieve economy by using high voltage, but only when power flow can be arranged so that large quantities are moved simultaneously along a common path (line).
Voltage Regulation Voltage regulation equipment includes line regulators and line drop compensators, as well as tap changing transformers. These devices vary their turns ratio (ratio of voltage in to voltage out) to react to variations in voltage drop - if voltage drops, they raise the voltage; if voltage rises, they reduce it to compensate. Properly used, they can help maintain voltage fluctuation on the system within acceptable limits, but they can only reduce the range of fluctuation, not eliminate it altogether.
Total capacity increases as one heads toward the customer because of noncoincidence of peak load (which will be discussed in Chapter 3) and for reliability purposes. 5 This greater-capacity-at-every-lower-level characteristic is a deliberate design feature of most power systems, and required both for reliability reasons and to accommodate coincidence of load, which will be discussed in Chapter 3. Power Delivery Systems 11 15 Ten-year Service Interruption Statistics by Level of Cause io E > — Oo Generation Trans.