Psychological Reality by Kenneth P. Hillner (Eds.)

By Kenneth P. Hillner (Eds.)

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An immutable psychological uni- verse would be vacuous at a metaphysical level. 7. Both t h e process o f constructing a model o f psychological reality and the resulting model itself must bear a meaningful relationship t o t h e physical means o f production characteristic o f a given society or culture. At a more general level, psychology must be a viable component o f t h e economic system. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS The four boundary conditions c a n be denoted a s ( 1 1 Western psychology, ( 2 ) classical and contemporary models, (3) models a s possible paradigms, and (41 psychological subspecialties and processes.

The trend in t h e more recently developed systems o f psychology, such a s latter-day depth psychology (Rapaport, 19591, humanism [Rogers, 19611, and dialectical psychology [Riegel, 19791, is toward a more explicit recognition o f and emphasis o n t h e normative change principle. Although t h e initial philosophical input into psychology related t o t h e nature of t h e human mind in t h e context of structuralism (Hillner, 19841, t h e continued relevance of philosophy f o r psychology relates more directly t o principles o f action and t h e change imperative (Wheeler, 1973): t o what degree should t h e organism be controlled; what constitute ethical f o r m s o f psychological intervention; what constitutes t h e content o f ideal end-states; o r is t h e use o f punishment and other aversive techniques ever justifiable?

The classical schools could be meaningfully differentiated in t e r m s o f their respective object of study specifications and permissible methodology dicta: conscious experience and behavior constituted distinct metaphysical categories, and methodology served as a crucial metaphysical battleground. Con- temporary systems cannot meaningfully be differentiated in terms o f object o f study or methodology: conscious experience and behavior merely are semantic [linguistic] distinctions, and methodology is now a technical subspecialty.

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