Shape and Functional Elements of the Bulk Silicon by Joachim Frühauf

By Joachim Frühauf

This methodic guide offers a survey of the form-related and useful parts of the majority silicon microtechnique. It provides a scientific description of easy form parts and of components for mechanical, fluidic and optical purposes. This guide contains sensible directions for using the proper suggestions and an intensive selection of examples for the help of the hunt for purposes through photos, drawings and references. It serves as a useful consultant to the layout of etch mask and approaches whereas summarizing the $64000 homes of silicon, specially aiming at manufacturers of sensors and microtechnical parts, in addition to manufacturers of parts of precision engineering and optical purposes.

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8. In the case of the {100}-wafer the resulting deepening of any window approaches a concave pyramidal or rooflike shape having a rectangular contour of underetching orientated parallel to the <110>-directions (0° or 90° relative to the flat). Because of the minimal etch rate of the {111}-faces no additional sidewalls are generated in the concave angles. In the case of a narrow window with the width b the etch ground is completely removed if the depth dT exceeds the amount b dT = . 4) 2 b C d s to p  z (1 1 1 ) a y 5 4 ,7 4 ° a 2 2 a) Underetching at different times (dotted: etch ground) b) Final shape x c) Geometrical etch stop Fig.

With regard to a straight edge of the mask the upper edge belonging to it is displaced by the distance of underetching dU whereas the lower edge moves with increasing depth along the inclined sidewall resulting in a projected distance relative to the mask edge (projected width p of sidewall). 23) respective Of course, the reverse calculation of the width w of a window necessary for a wished width of a deepening is possible in this simple case. Analogous relations can be formulated for a wall resulting from a masked island of the width w.

2*1019 cm-3 the Fermi-level, which is in the forbidden band for a non-degenerate semiconductor, goes down into the valency band. The semiconductor shows a quasi-metallic character. The region of space charge being expanded in the lower doped region contracts to a few layers of atoms and disappears. The electrons, which are injected into the crystal during the oxidation (eq. 8)) have a very low shelf life. Immediately they recombine with the holes being available in a high concentration. Thus there are not enough electrons for the following reduction step.

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