Titanium: A Technical Guide by Matthew J. Donachie

By Matthew J. Donachie

A whole creation to titanium and its alloys, with assurance of all technical elements of titanium with enough metals estate facts for many clients. For clients at any point of expertise with titanium, delivering either technical details and an govt precis of the steel and its makes use of. DLC: Titanium.

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Extra resources for Titanium: A Technical Guide

Sample text

Most titanium and titanium alloy ingot is melted twice using the VAR process. The procedure is known as the double consumable-electrode vacuum-arc remelting process. Double melting is considered necessary for all applications to ensure an acceptable degree of homogeneity in the resulting product. For certain critical applications, a third, or “triple,” melting step was specified at times, especially after the middle of the 1960s when defects were found in rotor-grade titanium alloys produced by double melting.

The actual practice varies with alloy producer and user. 11 shows some microstructures formed from Ti-6Al-4V alloy as a function of solution temperature and cooling rate. To place the alloy in a soft, relatively machinable condition, the alloy is heated to about 730 °C (1346 °F) in the lower range of the alpha-plus-beta region, held for 4 hours, then furnace cooled to 25 °C (77 °F). This treatment, called mill annealing, produces a microstructure of globular crystals of beta in an alpha matrix.

Although yield strength after beta forging was not always as high as that after alpha-beta forging, values Schematic of a conventional die forging and subsequent heat treatment to produce an alphabeta structure Fig. 7Al-13V-7Sn-2Zr) 675 770 795 745 720 760 1250 1415 1460 1375 1325 1410 C/B C B C/B C/B C/B C/B C/B C/B 705–980 705–785 815–870 650–955 705–925 705–980 705–955 650–870 705–925 1300–1800 1300–1450 1500–1600 1200–1750 1300–1700 1300–1800 1300–1750 1200–1600 1300–1700 (a) C, conventional forging processes in which most or all of the forging work is accomplished below the βt of the alloy for the purposes of desired mechanical property development.

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