Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures. Case Studies, Mechanisms, by Raymond S.H. Yang

By Raymond S.H. Yang

Even though toxicologic reviews within the laboratory frequently concentrate on a unmarried chemical, within the greater international, combinations of chemical compounds are mostly encountered. Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures examines the mechanisms of interactions and future health results stemming from chemical combos within the surroundings. Toxicologists, pharmacologists, environmental scientists, and pros enthusiastic about environmental clean-ups will make the most of its content.
Emphasis is on low-level, long term publicity.

Key Features
* a number of the concerns addressed include:
* goal organ toxicities according to chemical blend exposures
* danger review and experimental approaches
* Case stories and specified pollutants problems
* specific toxins difficulties

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59 ± 0 . 2 ± 4 . 46 ± 0 . 0 7 e 150 b Modified from Silkworth et al. (1986), with permission. Love Canal soil solvent extract was administered in corn oil to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats by oral gavage on Days 6 - 1 5 of gestation. Dams were sacrificed on Day 2 0 . Data are presented as the group mean ± SE. 001. a 75 25 Corn oil Observation Dose Love Canal soil solvent extract (mg/kg/day) Effects o f Love Canal Soil Solvent Extract on Pregnant Sprague-Dawley Rats and Fetal Birthweight/^ TABLE IV 25 b a 59 152 4 14 34 3747 91 2029 69 36 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 1,2,3,5 -Tetrachlorobenzene 1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene Pentachlorobenzene Hexachlorobenzene α-Benzene hexachloride γ-Benzene hexachloride /3-Benzene hexachloride δ-Benzene hexachloride 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol 2,3,4,5-Tetrachlorophenol 2,3,5,6-Tetrachlorophenol Pentachlorophenol ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 1 12 55 118 0 0 11 255 32 611 19 4 8 410 14 72 10 6 37 15 11 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Blood 4 66 2 7 2 1 9 1 2 53 61 26 91 17 1 55 11942 237 3600 416 129 Liver ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 7 11 14 20 7 0 12 1081 69 310 149 20 75 8 1519 35 299 17 12 92 15 16 Blood ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 2 170 7 32 4 2 33 2 6 82 16 126 13560 624 6760 268 111 2 70 8 Liver ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 32 8 31 3537 167 635 174 19 0 0 0 150 39 3392 47 599 9 23 42 44 17 Blood ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 34 705 21 95 4 5 2 10 9 Modified from Silkworth et al.

T h e contrasting sensitivities o f both strains to the maternal and fetal effects o f pure T C D D also are shown in Figure 1. 5 /x,g T C D D / k g / d a y , T C D D increased maternal liver weights by 1 6 % , increased fetal birthweights by 4 % , and caused a 3 1 % incidence o f hydronephrosis in C 5 7 B L / 6 J mice. A 4 7 % incidence o f cleft palate first was observed at the highest dose, 4 /xg T C D D / k g / d a y . T h u s , producing approximately 2. Love Canal: Toxicologic Evaluation 31 the same severity o f each o f these effects in the D B A / 2 J mice required 2—16 times the a m o u n t o f T C D D .

T h e E D 5 0s for T C D D in C 5 7 B L / 6 J and B 6 . D 2 mice were 0 . 5 4 /zg T C D D / k g and 7 . 5 μ% T C D D / kg, respectively. T h u s , the T C D D equivalents o f the O P L were 3 . 9 p p m and 5 . 0 ppm, using C 5 7 B L / 6 J and B 6 . D 2 mice, respectively. T h e s e T C D D equivalent values c o m p a r e d very closely with those calculated in the earlier experiments with inbred strains. H o w e v e r , they represented 5 times the analytical value o f 0 . 7 4 p p m T C D D in the O P L , which had been reanalyzed with greater precision than in earlier studies.

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